Yasser Metwally

My life…and the world

Third Intermediate Period of ancient Egyptian life

The author: Professor Yasser Metwally

http://yassermetwally.com


Following the death of Ramesses XI in 1078 BC, Smendes assumed authority over the northern part of Egypt, ruling from the city of Tanis. The south was effectively controlled by the High Priests of Amun at Thebes, who recognized Smendes in name only. During this time, Libyans had been settling in the western delta, and chieftains of these settlers began increasing their autonomy. Libyan princes took control of the delta under Shoshenq I in 945 BC, founding the so-called Libyan or Bubastite dynasty that would rule for some 200 years. Shoshenq also gained control of southern Egypt by placing his family members in important priestly positions. Libyan control began to erode as a rival dynasty in the delta arose in Leontopolis, and Kushites threatened from the south. Around 727 BC the Kushite king Piye invaded northward, seizing control of Thebes and eventually the Delta.

Egypt’s far-reaching prestige declined considerably toward the end of the Third Intermediate Period. Its foreign allies had fallen under the Assyrian sphere of influence, and by 700 BC war between the two states became inevitable. Between 671 and 667 BC the Assyrians began their attack on Egypt. The reigns of both Kushite kings Taharqa and his successor, Tanutamun, were filled with constant conflict with the Assyrians, against whom the Nubian rulers enjoyed several victories. Ultimately, the Assyrians pushed the Kushites back into Nubia, occupied Memphis, and sacked the temples of Thebes.


References

  1. The Egyptian dynasties [Full text]
  2. Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt [Full text]
  3. First Intermediate Period in Ancient Egyptian life [Full text]
  4. Ancient Egyptian Middle Kingdom [Full text]
  5. Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom [Full text]
  6. Second Intermediate Period and the Hyksos [Full text]
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November 28, 2009 - Posted by | Ancient Egyptian panorama

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